and its alloys are increasing in popularity in many industries
due to its many desirable properties.
is a lustrous silver-white metal that exhibits allotropy.
Allotropy, or dimorphism, is when an element occurs in two
or more crystalline or molecular structural forms within
the same element. Below 883°C it has a hexagonal crystalline
structure (alpha stage), but above 883°C
it slowly changes to a cubic crystalline structure (beta
It is light, strong, easily fabricated metal with low density.
It is quite ductile when pure and malleable when heated.
It has a relatively high melting point and is the only element
that burns in pure nitrogen gas (at 800°C). Titanium
and its alloys are light in weight and have a very high
tensile strength even at high temperatures. Titanium is
as strong as steel, but 45% lighter and twice as strong
as Aluminum. Titanium also has a special quality about it
because of its unique reaction when exposed to oxygen ().
It creates a surface oxide film coating when exposed to
oxygen, which gives it such good resistance to corrosive
materials even at high temperatures. This film coating can
instantaneously heal itself if damaged. This is the reason
why titanium and titanium alloys are extremely corrosion
resistant and can be used without painting because it does
not rust or corrode like steel or aluminum. Even sulfuric,
hydrochloric, and most organic acids along with chlorine
find titanium resistant to dilution.
Titanium also has elongation numbers of 20-30%, which is
much higher than steel's 6-15% or aluminum's 6-12%. As a
general rule, the lower the elongation number, the more
brittle and breakable the material is. The reverse is also
true. The higher the elongation number, the stronger the
material is. Looking at titanium's elongation numbers, you
can see that titanium has a much higher percentage and has
a better tendency to bend or stretch before it will actually
Titanium also reacts significantly to cold working. Cold
working is the process of manipulating the shape of the
metal at room temperature. You may think that this process
may weaken the material but it is just the opposite. By
cold-working titanium you can increase the strength and
stiffness of the product.
Characteristics of Titanium:
Other Titanium Properties: